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Underground systems below public open spaces (sport fields) composed of modular elements to retain flash floods and to s...
Planted walls with controlled cultivation are called green facades. Facade greenings are divided in two types. The facad...
Intensive green roofs* are often associated with residential buildings, hotels or underground parkings. The more complex...
- Porous asphalt is permeable to water - Porous asphalt is similar to permeable/pervious concrete (function) - Composed...
Residential Parks are part of the Green Infrastructure (GI) of cities and serve the residential areas as the nearest mai...
Biofilters (air) are facilities to control and purify biological waste gas. They are developed to reduce and eliminate b...
Mosses have compared to other plants a large bio-active surface, they transpire more and also actively reduce some pollu...
Boulevards represent a possibility to establish several trees in cities amongst others to mitigate urban heat stress. Wi...
- Vegetated grid pavers consist of concrete bricks with gaps/funnels between the single bricks - Use of concrete bricks...
- opening of covered/buried watercourses (rivers, drainage systems) by removing concrete layers - reason for culverting...
Verticalization of green spaces is an adequate way to increase vegetated surfaces with many ecological services in urban...
A rain garden* is a kind of garden that primarily serves as area for water control (storage and infiltration) on a small...
Constructed wetlands represent artificial wetlands with the main objective to harvest, treat and store storm-/grey water...
Planted walls with controlled cultivation are called green facades. Ground-based green facades are made of climbing plan...
Extensive green roofs* are basic, light weight systems, characterized by minimum maintenance and management (artificial...
- High permeable material/special material that allows water to pass through into the soil - underground gravel bed (add...
Areas of derelict infrastructure, e.g. railway lines, that are transformed into linear parks play an important role in u...
For hundreds of years, the Khasi people of the Meghalayan mountains in north-eastern India have built bridges created wi...
- Permeable concrete is permeable to water (also described as heavy permeable surface) - Special material/cement mixture...
Group of trees mimicking the gestalt of a forest in an urban setting. They may be an option for the design of shaded squ...
- varying the bank reinforcement - plants/trees are planted along the riverside to stabilize the riverbank and thus avoi...
Noise barrier as free standing living walls are constructions of baskets or different elements covered/filled with soil...
Single line trees represent one possibility to establish several trees in urban areas. As the name implies, single line...
Permeable paving systems are known as surfaces that are able to absorb storm water and thus, minimize the surface water...
Biofilters (water) are developed to collect and purify storm- and wastewater and represent a promising system for storm...
Green noise barriers are effective measures to reduce noise emissions along highly frequented roads. They are often desi...
A bioswale* is a vegetated, linear and low sloped pit often established in urban areas near/between roads with the objec...

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 730052 Topic: SCC-2-2016-2017: Smart Cities and Communities Nature based solutions